- Ashton Southard, Oakland Univ.
- Jennifer Vrabel, Oakland Univ.
- Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Oakland Univ.
Moderation analyses controlling for narcissism revealed that individuals with stable high self-esteem reported the lowest levels of malicious envy, whereas those with unstable high self-esteem and those with low self-esteem reported higher levels of malicious envy. Benign envy was positively associated with self-esteem level and negatively associated with self-esteem instability.